Past Issues

2020: Volume 1, Issue 1

Determination of Proximate, Phytochemicals and Minerals Composition of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter Leaf)

Muhammad Ali1*, Lurwan Mu’azu2, Sani U. Diso3, Idris S. Ibrahim3

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University Gusau, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Science, Federal University Gusau, Nigeria
3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Technology, Kano State Polytechnics, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: Muhammad Ali, Department of Microbiology, Federal University Gusau, Nigeria, E-mail: [email protected].
Received: July 30, 2020
Published: September 08, 2020


Vegetables are the major sources of vitamins, minerals and bioactive components such as phytochemicals and antioxidants that help in reducing the risk of diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the proximate composition, phytochemical screening and mineral composition of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract. The proximate composition and phytochemical screenings were determined by using conventional laboratory methods, while the mineral composition of the leaves was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The proximate analysis of the leaf extract showed that, it contains carbohydrates (37%), proteins (28.2%), fats (5.5%), crude fiber (11.6%), moisture content (8.4%) and ash content (9.3%). The preliminary phytochemical screening of V. amygdalina leaf extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, saponins, and tannins. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the extract showed that the flavonoids are the most abundant constituent which is about 12.2%, followed by steroids, alkaloids, and phenols constituting 4.8%, 4.6%, and 3.6% respectively. The mineral analysis of the extract indicate the presence of calcium (61 mg/100g), potassium (61 mg/100g), magnesium (85.8 mg/100g), phosphorous (60.5 mg/100g), zinc (9 mg/100g), iron (15.2 mg/100g) and copper (5 mg/100g). From the findings of this study, it is concluded that V. amygdalina leaf has therapeutic potential and can be used in dietary supplements.

KEYWORDS: Minerals; Phytochemicals; Proximate analysis; Vernonia amygdalina

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